Lionel Snell

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Lionel Snell is among the founding names in chaos magic – though better known as Ramsey Dukes. In 1970 Gerald Yorke (keeper of the Crowley archive) introduced him to the writings of Austin Osman Spare and he wrote “Spare Parts” – an introductory article about Spare’s system of magic – which was published in Agape 4 in 1973 together with a facsimile of Snell’s copy of  The Anathema of Zos. This, together with his first self-published books SSOTBME – An Essay on Magic and Thundersqueak played a seminal role in the nascent Chaos current. He is also known for his contribution to cyber magic, having already pioneered the ‘information universe’ concept twenty years before The Matrix.

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